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- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Wednesday, 01 June 2016 12:25
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Frequency refers to the rate at which the electroencephalographic waves move across the surface of the brain. The EEG frequency is used to define both the normal and abnormal electroencephalographic rhythms. Amplitude which is the degree of vibration is a measure of the strength of the electroencephalographic patterns in electrical energy, (Libenson, 2010).
Desynchronization occurs when the eyes are open since the average frequency of the alpha rhythm when the eyes are closed is 3.33 and the average frequency changes to 2.42 when the eyes are open.
Desynchronization of the alpha rhythms in electroencephalography affects the allocation of spatial attention. When the attention is shifted towards cued stimuli, there is an increase in the alpha frequency above the parietooccipital scalp that is contralateral the stimuli that are ignored. This increase in the alpha of the attending over the unattended is normally maintained for a period of 8 seconds. This is an active suppression mechanism that facilitates the attentional opening of competing stimuli that share the features as the attended stimuli. Synchronization of the alpha rhythm usually reflects a vigorous suppression mechanism in the attention but not a passive mechanism which reflects ‘dormant’ circuits.
When the eyes are open, there is a decrease in the activities of both the delta and the theta. This decrease in the appearance of the delta and the theta waves is because, in normal cases, they appear during slow wave sleep as the large groups of neurons are driven together. The appearance of these waves usually occurs in pathological states such as brain tumors, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. The theta waves specifically, are helpful to the brain when it is not produced in excess during wakeful hours. Delta waves are the slowest human brain waves and usually occur in unconscious body states.
The mean value of delta frequency agrees with the expected delta value. The delta frequency ranges from 0-4 Hz and the mean value obtained in the table falls in the range.
An alpha rhythm is the normal electrical wave that occurs when the brain is at resting state especially when the eyes are closed. These waves are too much when daydreaming or when one lacks the ability to focus and below optimum levels when under high-stress conditions, insomnia and when one is anxious. The beta rhythms are brain waves associated with a waking state and are usually high in alertness status, logic and during critical reasoning. These waves are limited under depression, poor cognition and when one is an Alzheimer’s disease patient. The theta rhythms are the brain waves usually occurring during deep meditation and light sleep. These waves are high under ADHD conditions, depression and hyperactivity but limited under stress, anxiety and poor emotional awareness.
The general amplitude of the electroencephalography is highest when one recovers from hyperventilation, in which the subjects have an abnormal quick and deep breathing. This condition leads to a fall in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, an increase in pH levels, and a decrease in blood pressure, all changes of which are associated with an increase in the electrical activity of the brain, thus an increase in the amplitude of the alpha rhythms.
The results presented in the introduction cannot compare with the one found in the table. This is because this experiment aimed in establishing the whether desynchronization occurs when the eyes are open and when the eyes are closed. This is similar to the information presented in the introduction and taken from the article published on trustworthy essay writing service, which is also aimed at determining the differences in the frequencies of the brain waves at different brain activities.
Compared to Magnetoencephalography (MEG), the magnetic fields in the electroencephalography are weaker and are mostly influenced by the electrical currents and therefore much information about the source location within the brain cannot be derived. The silence of the EEG allows for the intensive study of the impact of the auditory stimuli. EEG, on the other hand, has a low temporal resolution in the scalp making it involve intense interpretation of the signals by hypothesizing the parts of the brain that are activated in response to a given stimuli. Additionally, the signal to noise ratio of the EEG is poor and thus more complex data analysis tools are needed to derive very useful information, (Niedermeyer, Schomer & Lopes, 2011). In contrast to this disadvantage, the EEG is much more applicable to the subjects who are not able to make motor responses. Compared to the fMRI, the EEG hardware is much cheaper, easily portable and with a higher resolution. TMS also allows for the study of numerous subjects using the same experimental paradigm.
Neurofeedback is a technique used to train the brain such that it can improve its ability to regulate the bodily functions and the ability to take care of itself. Autism spectrum disorders involve the diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder, autism and Asperger’s disorder. The major insufficiency associated with autism spectrum disorder is the poor social communication. This may be as a result of the lack of the ability to recognize and understand social behaviors, and impaired capability to form social connections. Patients with the autism spectrum disorder normally find, it difficult to respond to the give and take that is primary to the social interactions. Their ability to recognize and respond to the nuances of social communication is impaired. It is, therefore, difficult for them to develop and understand their own emotional distresses. These are the basics of the patients with autism. It has been proven that besides helping individuals with ASD improve and take control of their behavior, it is quite significant to work and understand their neurobiology by monitoring and their brain thus helping them change the electrical activity or the wave activity of their brain. The working of the brain involves electrical and chemical interactions each of which influences the other. The electrical signals in the brain are normally transmitted at different frequencies which are a factor of the mental status at any particular moment. The frequencies range in from low to high depending on the activity state of the brain. Neurofeedback has been found to be effective in reducing the short comes associated with ASD as it targets specific parts of the brain thus increasing or reducing the brain wave activity in specific frequency ranges. Neurofeedback training has also been shown to improve the sociability, health, communication and sensory awareness.
There are different forms of neurofeedback, each of which is specific for adjusting specific brain parts. One common form of neurofeedback is involved in fine-tuning the extent of connectivity of the different brain parts and this has been found to reduce enormously the symptoms of autism. For the brain to function appropriately, different parts of the brain have to interact with each other. This is possible when the electrical signals from the different parts of the brain are fired in synchrony with each other. While this happens, the different brain parts have to remain independent of the other brain parts as they perform different functions. In autism spectrum disorders, the independence of the different parts of the frontal lobe is breached and thus they are connected. The parts of the frontal lobes are usually involved in coordinating the other parts of the brain through attending, delaying, organizing, controlling emotional responses, planning, inhibiting, and considering the long-term consequences of an action. It is quite useful for the different parts of the frontal lobe to coordinate with each other while maintaining their independence. In autism, it has been shown that there is not enough coordination between the frontal lobes and the back of the brain, especially in the parietal lobe, (Amaral, Geschwind & Dawson, 2011). The parietal lobe plays an important role in the processing of sensory information from the peripheral nervous system. This information from the peripheral nervous system is then interpreted correctly to be able to correctly interpret social connections.
Neurofeedback treatment for the Autism Spectrum Disorders involves monitoring one’s brain wave state using electroencephalography, which is painless while the patient is allowed to play a video game-like exercise which involves the control of the brain wave activity, (BrainCore Therapy, 2015). The exercise is normally set in such a way that when the patient’s brain activity shows an increase in the beta activity or any other slow wave activity, the patient earns some points in the video game the screen action advances. The action in the game is set to stop when the brain wave activity moves to the undesired pattern. This prompts the brain to get back to the desired pattern. This brain activity is unconsciously done as the individual attends to the visual and auditory feedbacks provided when he or she is succeeding in the game. This brain exercise allows the brain to produce the pattern on its own.
In neurofeedback, individuals with autism are able to adjust their brain activity through practice. Neurofeedback gives information about the changes that occur in the brain wave activity. For autism, it works by reducing the activation of brain’s emotional networks and the improvement of social and sensory information processing, (Jacobs, 2015). This can only be achieved through continuous neurofeedback treatments. The treatment of autism using neurofeedback requires a lot of time, with each session lasting for 30-45 minutes. Even when done for a short period, neurofeedback has shown improvement in the emotional, social and the behavioral functioning of the autistic patients. Compared to drugs, neurofeedback is more effective as is involves consistent practice while medications treat the symptoms of autism temporarily and do nothing about the underlying cause of autism. Besides, some medications can cause some serious side effects, some of which may increase the symptoms of autism. Neurofeedback helps the patients to manage their emotional, social and behavioral functioning for quite longer periods compared to the individuals who use drugs to subside the symptoms of autism, (Fisher, 2014). Additionally, the printout that is normally obtained for the neurofeedback is used to pinpoint the affected area, making it easy to determine the appropriate training to be employed. By focusing on specific affected areas, neurofeedback can improve the symptoms of the Autism Spectrum Disorders thus enhancing the patient’s ability to control sensory input. Previous studies have shown that training the back side of the brain reduces the hyperactive behavior of the patients while the training of the front side of the brain improves the emotional outbursts and expression. The training of the left front side of the brain improves the attention. The right side, however, has been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Therefore, neurofeedback technique employs the art of practice that is essential for the improvement of performance of every activity and so is the brain activity.
Why you should compare and contrast and compare innate against anthropogenic local climate transitions.
- Category: Organic Versus Anthropogenic Conditions
- Published on Wednesday, 24 June 2015 16:47
- Written by Super User
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Global warming can be the equivocal improve belonging to the usual earth’s temperatures thanks to excessive release of garden greenhouse gas for instance carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,methane and chlorofluorocarbons, h2o vapour, and sulphur hexafluoride. This disorder occurs when green house gases deplete the ozone covering, making more uv rays to realize the earth’s area. Additionally, these gases version a “blanket” for the surroundings that helps to prevent the nice and cozy oxygen disorders from escaping (Anup, 2013). Nonetheless, climatic change has several uncomfortable side effects for both people and dogs for example the emergence newest pests and diseases, event of droughts and famine, floods, damage of environments for outdoors cats and seas critters amongst others. However, this condition occurs due to the influence of both natural and anthropogenic activities. This papers makes sense great care about the differences and similarities involving healthy and anthropogenic conditions alterations, an evaluation of regardless whether climate change continues to be taking place or not, an examination of various mitigation recommendations and strategies for scheme adjusts that will help in stabilizing world wide local climate.
Why you should check out and contrast holistic in contrast to anthropogenic local climate fluctuations.
- Category: Best Ways to Assess and Contrast
- Published on Thursday, 04 June 2015 17:50
- Written by Super User
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Climatic change is your equivocal growth belonging to the everyday earth’s high temperature on account of high discharge of green house fumes that include fractional co2, nitrous oxide,chlorofluorocarbons and methane, rain water vapor, and sulphur hexafluoride. This problem develops when garden greenhouse fumes deplete the ozone part, generating ultra violet rays to achieve the earth’s surface area. Aside from that, these gases kind a “blanket” inside your ambiance that helps prevent the warm environment settings from escaping (Anup, 2013). Even so, climate change has numerous adverse effects on both human beings and animals much like the emergence of new pests and diseases, incidence of droughts and famine, flooding, devastation of environments for outrageous creatures and seas beings as well as others. However, this condition occurs due to the influence of both natural and anthropogenic activities. This cardstock will pay you elevated focus on the similarities and differences amongst organic and anthropogenic local weather varies, an evaluation of either climate change continues to be going on or not, an examination of various mitigation strategies and recommendations for coverage alterations that can assist in stabilizing universal weather.
Tips on how to compare and distinction all natural rather than anthropogenic local weather modifications.
- Category: Best Ways to Assess and Contrast
- Published on Friday, 01 May 2015 14:51
- Written by Super User
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Climatic change will be equivocal expand belonging to the regular earth’s environment attributable to abnormal discharge of garden greenhouse fumes as an example carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,methane and chlorofluorocarbons, rain water vapor, and sulphur hexafluoride. This condition takes place when garden greenhouse toxic gases diminish the ozone part, generating uv rays to realize the earth’s area. At the same time, these gas create a “blanket” at the atmosphere that hinders the nice and cozy air health conditions from escaping (Anup, 2013). However, climatic change has several negative effects on both humans and family pets including the emergence of new diseases and pests, incident of droughts and famine, flooding, exploitation of habitats for wilderness dogs and cats and sea beings amongst others. This condition occurs due to the influence of both natural and anthropogenic activities, however. This pieces of paper makes sense huge appreciation of the similarities and differences concerning usual and anthropogenic local weather transitions, an assessment of no matter if global warming is still happening or not, an assessment of several mitigation recommendations and strategies for protection plan transitions that might help in stabilizing world wide local weather.